An Abundance of Woody Vegetation in Range land of shilabo district,Korehe Zone,Somali region,East Ethiopia.

   Abundance of Woody Vegetation in Shilabo district

The abundance of woody species in Communal grassland, 5E and 10E were 1.96, 2.40 and 2.68 T. No of individuals/T. No of occurrence of species respectively . Enclosures have better Species abundance than that of communal grazing land this might be due to the enclosures have higher soil organic matter, cation Exchange capacity, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and others soil properties which are influence the growth of woody species. This might be also a result of overgrazing by livestock grazing and over utilization of Human interference in communal grazing land. High grazing intensities leads to overgrazing of plant species in the open Grazing land and which then end up the dominating the range land.


Concept Of Biodiversity and Ecosystem types

Types of Biodiversity and its important?

Types of Biodiversity conservation?

Types of Ecosystem and structure?


What is Biodiversity?

ØBiodiversity, or Biological Diversity, is the sum of all the different species of plants, animals, fungi and microbial organisms that live on Earth, including the various ecosystems in which they live on.

ØBiodiversity also includes the genetic information that these organisms contain.

ØSo it can called biodiversity to describe the variation in the genetic makeup of an organism. On a larger scale, you can use it to describe various types of ecosystems.

vBiodiversity plays an integral role in the way ecosystems work and in the benefits they provide includes the flowing

ØRegulating elements such as climate, water quality, disease, and pollination

ØProvisioning resources such as food, clean water, industrial raw materials, and genetic resources

ØCultural promotion such as recreational, aesthetics, spiritual benefits

  • Biodiversity is normally approached at three levels, which work interdependently to create the complexity of life on Earth these levels includes1.Genetic Diversity

    2.Species Diversity

    3.Ecological Diversity

    • 1. Genetic Diversity

    ØAll species on Earth are somewhat related through genetic connections.

    ØAnd the more closer a species is related to another, the more genetic information the two species will share. These species will also look more similar.

    ØMoreover, members of a species share intricate mating behaviors. These behaviors help them to identify each other as potential partners.

  • Species Diversity(no of different species in area)

    ØA wide variety of species exists in an environment. And that’s what is referred to as species diversity.

    ØSpecies are the standard measure of biological diversity in light of the fact that they are the basic units of biological classification.

    ØThe number of various species in a given ecosystem or environment is described as Species Richness.

    ØThe total number of species in the world is about 10 million. However, only 1.75 million species have been named scientifically to date.


  • Ecological Diversity(how many types of habitat in area)

    ØEcological or ecosystem diversity is the variety of ecosystems in an area. It involves the complex network of various species present in the ecosystems and the dynamic interactions between them.

    Ø An ecosystem is made up of organisms from several different species living together in an environment and their connections through the flow of nutrients, energy, and matter.

    Ø An ecosystem can cover a small area, like a pond, or a large area, like an entire forest.

    Ø The primary source of energy in virtually every ecosystem is the sun whose radiant energy is transformed into chemical energy by the plants.


Types of Biodiversity Conservation Methods

1.In-situ conservation

2.Ex-situ conservation

  • 1. In situ Conservation

ØIn situ conservation refers to the conservation of species in their natural ecosystem.

ØIt involves protecting and maintaining the natural environment or ecosystem so that all constituent species are conserved.

ØThe factors that endanger the existence of species in the environment are eliminated by an appropriate mechanism.

In situ conservation is advantageous in several ways

ØIt is an economical and convenient way of conserving biodiversity

ØIt provides a way for preserving numerous organisms at the same time

ØIn a natural habitat, living organisms have the opportunity to adapt to different  habitats/envir.t

  • National parks
  • Sanctuaries
  • Biosphere reserves


2. Ex Situ Conservation

ØThe conservation of biodiversity outside of their natural environments or ecosystems is known as ex-situ conservation.

ØIt involves conservation of wild and cultivated species as well as genetic resources.

ØEx-situ conservation utilizes a wide range of techniques and facilities and it can be accomplished in the following ways:

1.By establishing gene banks, where sperm, ova, and seeds are stored at controlled temperatures and humidity

2.Forming zoo and botanical gardens. These can be beneficial for research purposes and for promoting public awareness of various organisms

3.Collecting microbial culture and in vitro plant tissue

4.Artificial propagation of plants and captive breeding of animals,



What is an Ecosystem?

ØAn ecosystem is a community of plants and animals interrelating with each other in a particular area, as well as with their non-living environments.

ØThe non-living environments encompass atmosphere, weather, sun, soil, and climate.

ØAn ecosystem can be expansive, with several hundreds of different flora and fauna all living with a delicate balance, or it can be fairly small.


Structure of Ecosystem

üThe structure of an ecosystem is essentially a description of an environment’s organisms and physical features.

üThis includes the amount and distribution of energy in the environment.

üMoreover, the structure of ecosystem provides information on various climatic conditions prevailing in the environment.

üIt is described under two major headings:

  • Abiotic components(as water, air, soil, elements)
  • Biotic components(producers,consumer and decomposers and transformers)


Types of Ecosystem

  • There are basically three types of ecosystems under which any other sub-ecosystem falls.

Ø Terrestrial Ecosystem

Ø Freshwater Ecosystem

Ø Ocean Ecosystem

v Terrestrial Ecosystems

  • In light of the fact that there are numerous different kinds of places on Earth, terrestrial ecosystems includes,( forest ecosystem, Desert Ecosystem, grassland ecosystem, mountain ecosystem)


v Freshwater Ecosystems

ØAs the title suggests, freshwater ecosystems encompass freshwater environments and are divided into three basic categories:

1.Lentic, which includes slow-moving or still water such as lakes, ponds, and pools.

2.Lotic, which includes fast-moving water like rivers and streams.

3.Wetlands, which include environments where the soil is saturated with water for a considerable period of time.

  • It is worth noting that freshwater ecosystems account for only 1.8 percent of the Earth’s surface total, which makes it the smallest of the three main types of ecosystems.(Plankton is certainly the smallest living element of the food web in freshwater ecosystems)


Oceanic Ecosystems

ØCovering about 71 percent of Earth’s surface and containing about 97 percent of all the Earth’s water, ocean ecosystem is certainly the largest ecosystem.

ØWater in this ecosystem is characterized by high amounts of dissolved sal70253164_2440536196193090_7847649266976686080_nts and

ØOceanic or marine ecosystems are divided into three main categories: the deep waters, shallow waters, and the deep ocean surface.



Impact of non recycle materials to the environmental economics. Author: Mowlid Hassan,

91815543c734ca17a4876c081d16df5cKey words: assimilation, recycling, impacts, pollution, hazards , Glass and plastic.



  1. Introduction to impact of non-recycle materials to environment.

It is well known the   non-recyclable material production (likewise the other brands of industry) has enormous Impacts on the environment economics. The using and processing of raw materials has a variety of negative effects on the environment. At the other hand there are technologies which can moderate the negative impacts on the Environment and they also have a positive economical effect. One of these processes is the non-recycling materials which is  the  use of the wastes.  As we know the main benefit of the recycling is a double decrease of the environment loading, known as an environmental impact reducing. From the first view point, the natural resources conserves at side of the manufacturing process inputs, from the second view point, the harmful compounds amount leaking to the environment decreases at side of the manufacturing pro

cess outputs. The conflict between economic optimization and environmental protection has received wide attention in recent research programs for waste management system planning. This has also resulted in a set of new waste management goals in reverse logistics system planning. Pati et al. (2008) have proposed a mixed integer goal programming (MIGP) model to capture the interrelationships among the paper recycling network system. Use of this model can bring indirectly benefit to the environment as well as improve the quality of waste paper reaching the recycling unit.    If the  environment doesn’t assimilate the material that is thrown by the people it is very difficult  to response in positively way  or  having enough  production  for the benefit  and   it causes  climate change , weather and natural resources that affect human survival and economic growth  as environmental.

  1. Major types of non-recycle material to the environment

There variety of non-recycle materials that negatively impact to the environmental economics  and the major types of non-recycle materials then we will  mention the assignment as these material has major effects to the environmental economics.  So  the major non-assimilate materials includes    PAPER: Wax paper, soiled paper, soiled napkins and paper towels, pet food bags and dryer sheets.  TIP: If bringing shredded paper, keep the shredded paper in a separate bag. PLASTIC: Any type of plastic that has NO number for recycling (e.g. Trash bags, Ziplock bags, inside cereal box plastic, bubble wrap, clear plastic wrap, some department store bags, potato chip bags, single cheese wrappers, 6-pack plastic and candy wrappers.) Soiled plastic bottles and bags.

STYROFOAM Although some Styrofoam  has some recycle but it is still considered not recyclable because there is not enough material left after breaking it down to make new products, (e.g. To-Go boxes and cups, Styrofoam dinnerware, Styrofoam packaging, and coolers)

.ALUMINUM: Soiled aluminum foil, soiled tin cans  CARDBOARD: Soiled pizza boxes and soiled cardboard (e.g. grease, mold and paint cluttered cardboard Definition of SOILED: to make unclean, dirty, or filthy, esp. on the surface A spot, mark or stain, dirty If enough soiled material makes its way into a recycling container the load is considered to be contaminated and will be discarded and sent to the landfill. Taking a few moments to make sure material is unsoiled and dry ensures that all material will be able to be recycled. GLASS: Windowpane glass (e.g. tempered glass)

  1. How the plastic impacts to the environmental economic

There are many of the damage caused by the plastic of living organisms (human, animal and plant). Plastic contains some chemicals that are difficult to constitute a threat to the ocean environment and living organisms. plastic factories produce a great amount of green house gases and carbon dioxide . which lead to significant increase in global warming that can change many species habitats therefore their numbers will decrease. Another fact that most kind of plastic diffuse toxic pollutants to the atmosphere, besides burning plastic generate toxic fumes fuse with the air. In addition these toxics can leak to the soil and groundwater and cause contamination of soil and groundwater which makes it impossible to grow the plants . these harmful chemicals have the ability to conflict with hormones in the body which is a major reason of many disease and faultiest in cells functions. Generally plastic  negatively impact the environmental economics after  assimilation not occur the soil and the ecological recycles become waste, because  plastic impacts, Plastic on Human health as economically, Plastic effects on plant that economically become  very risk, Plastic effects on animals,  Plastic generally effects environmental economy.

3.1. impacts of  Plastic on Human health as economically/ environmentally

Plastic contains chemicals that cause damage to the nervous system and immune system and some genetic diseases. If the plastic exposed to high temperature is produced from the melt poisonous substances called dioxins, causing  some tumors, birth defects, genetic mutations, and cause gas and vehicles Alheidrockeropponip liquid resulting from plastics pollution in the air and the earth, as well as causing chemicals resulting from the manufacture of plastics, such as oxide, ethylene, gasoline and Alaakslin destruction of the nervous system and immune system and certain types of cancers, kidney disease, and this chemical pollution dangerous resulting in poisoning of food and causing health problems are complex, most important of which increase the chance of infertility and disease cancer and hormonal imbalance in the body and disturbances in the nervous system and imbalance in the mental capacity. Prevents heating food in the microwave using plastic containers, especially those of food containing fat, which leads to the food poisoning which affects the body and human health.

3.2. Impacts of Plastic on the plants:

Bags and volumes of plastic if stabilized volumes and bags on the plants to prevent the arrival of sufficient light to also prevent them from breathing at night and hinder its growth, if you reach this material to the soil to prevent it from breathing and ventilation, may reach hundreds of years, because most microorganisms can not analysis of plastic materials, plastic bags that need to be 1000 years to decompose in the soil. Because they contain chemical analysis difficult.  Plastic has direct impact to the plants by the side of assimilation and nutrient.

3.3. Impacts of Plastic on animals as environmental economics

The plastic is a danger to marine animals, when you get these materials to the seas and oceans is destroying the marine environment. When you get to work on the dam fish gills and prevent them from breathing and cause death that reduce the Biodiversity of aquaculture. As well as causing damage to wildlife that may be addressed, causing blockage of the gastrointestinal tract and lead to death. Furthermore, around 100,000 animals like dolphins ,penguins and turtle whales are killed because of the plastic bags. Many animals eat the plastic bags by mistake this problem doesn’t end in here because later when these animals died , the animal body will decompose but the plastic will not decompose and it will kill another victim. Plastic types are vary, some of them are petroleum -based plastic . which need more than 12 million barrels of petrol in its industry ,this type of plastic has a sharp increase in its price because of the petrol price . So scientists tried to find alternative materials for the petrol so they suggested to use oil shale and tar oil but it still expensive .besides people use plastic in big amount which can affect the economy of the individuals and country for example many people in the countries where water cannot be consume ,they buy bottled water which cost a lot yearly and increase the amount of plastic waste ,for that environmental groups like Clean Up the world suggest to find places of the good water to let the people use them instead of the bottled water.

  1. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants.

Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a major limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in the world occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, . Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other major sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides,Al are the most toxic forms.  Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability, which negatively impact and reduce the environmental economics. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity.

4.1. Impacts heavy mental pollution  of water resources environmental economics

The term “heavy metal” is not altogether clearly defined, but in the case of water pollution, these are metals such as arsenic, cadmium, iron, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, vanadium and zinc. While heavy metals do tend to have a high atomic mass, and so are heavy in that sense, toxicity seems to be a further defining factor as to what constitutes a heavy metal and what does not. Heavy metals occur in the earth’s geological and ecological structures, and can therefore enter water resources through natural processes. For example, heavy rains or flowing water can leach heavy metals out of geological formations. Such processes are exacerbated when this geology is disturbed by economic activities such as mining. These processes expose the mined-out area to water and air, and can lead to consequences such as acid mine drainage (AMD). The low pH conditions associated with AMD mobilise heavy metals, including radionuclides where these are present.  Mineral processing operations can also generate significant heavy metal pollution, both from direct extraction processes (which typically entail size reduction – greatly increasing the surface area for mass transfer – and generate effluents) as well as through leaching from ore and tailings stockpiles. While mining activity poses significant risks for heavy metal pollution, this sector is not the only culprit in the industrial sector. Many industrial processes can generate heavy metal pollution, and in a large number of ways. Clearly, some industries will be more likely to pollute than others. Hence the electroplating industry, which can produce large volumes of metal-rich effluents, will naturally be a more likely polluter than the food processing industry, for example. This is not to say that players in this industry will necessarily pollute, and it is in fact in the electroplating industry’s best economic interests to minimise metal discharges, since these are inversely proportional to resource efficiency. Reducing losses by minimising drag-out from plating baths leads to reduced metal discharges, for example. The lead-acid battery manufacturing industry is another example of an industry which can generate metal-rich effluents as well as airborne lead pollution which can subsequently be deposited in surface water resources (and of course on land). So clearly, where an industry uses heavy metals as key input materials, pollution risks increase. An example of a large non-point source of heavy metal pollution is coal-fired power generation, which can contaminate water resources through aerial deposition of mercury emitted from boiler flues. Technologies such as wet scrubbing are available to remove much of this mercury, but of course the effluents produced have to be safely handled to prevent subsequent pollution. Some of these processes have the primary goal of removing sulphur dioxide, with heavy metal removal a welcome by-product of the scrubbing process. The industry also generates large amounts of ash which itself contains heavy metals, including uranium. The importance of minimising heavy metal pollution for industrial organisations extends beyond simple compliance. The impacts of heavy metal pollution on living organisms are very serious. Heavy metals are bio-accumulative, toxic at high concentrations, have neurological impacts, and some are carcinogenic.

  1. Conclusion of the assignment as the impacts of non-recycling materials to the environmental economics.

The popularity of mass-produced factory cell phones and consumer electronics has increased the amount of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are introduced to the environment during factory production as well as when a consumer throws them away. These metals are toxic to things living in soil, animals and humans, sometimes causing immediate death. They can also accumulate in smaller amounts inside the body over time leading to chronic illness    The indefinite period of time that it takes for the average of non-recycling materials to breakdown can be literally hundreds of years.  For example Every bag that ends up in the woodlands of the country threatens the natural progression of wildlife, livestock  . Because the break down rate is so slow the chances that the bag will harmlessly go away are extremely slim. Throughout the world non-recycling  materials  are responsible for suffocation deaths of woodland animals as well as inhibiting soil nutrients which negatively effect environmental economics.  The land litter that is made up of plastic bags has the potential to kill over and over again. It has been estimated that one bag has the potential to unintentionally kill one animal per every three months due to unintentional digestion or inhalation. If you consider the number of littered plastic bags ranges from 1.5 million to 3 million depending on location, this equals a lot of ecosystem sustaining lives lost.  Anyway Without the balance of the ecosystem food sources dry up and starvation occurs. With an increase in non-recycling use throughout the world, the eventual effects could be literally devastating even to the human population.



  1. Reference and source of the assignment…
  • The Effects of non Recycling and its Environmental Impact Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology Slovakia.( 70 percent used this book for the assignment)
  • Article of  list non-recycle materials  to the environment( source from internet)
  • Understanding economic and environmental impacts of single-stream collection systems published in December 2009, in container recycling institute  of EUROPE.
  • Concept of the Course introduction to natural resource and environmental economics,  prepared by the instructor  of the course
  • Project Report Economic Impact Analysis Proposed Ban on Plastic Carryout Bags in Los Angeles County Prepared for Sapphos Environmental, Inc. Pasadena, California

Professor Chemeda Fininsa becomes the 6th President of Haramaya University.

hemeda Fininsa Gurmessa is professor of Plant Pathology in the School of Plant Sciences at Haramaya University since July 2008. He earned BSc in Biology from Asmara University (1985), MPhil in Plant Pathology from the University of Wales, Bangor, the UK (1990), and PhD in Plant Pathology from Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden (2002).

He attained various certificates including on Agricultural Research for Development from International Center for Agricultural Research for Development (ICRA), the Netherlands in 1996, Leadership, and Higher Education Management from Kassel University, Germany in 2008.

Professor Chemeda has served for 30 years from Graduate Assistant to Professor academic rank in higher learning institutions 24 years at Haramaya University and the rest six years at Asmara University. At Haramaya University he has served as Acting President from 3 August 2015 to 30 October 2015 and Vice President for Academic Affairs from 19 May 2012 until 30 October 2015. He was Dean of School of Graduate Studies (2003-2009), Head, Department of Plant Sciences (2002), Coordinator, Pulses Improvement Research Program (2002-2007), Coordinator, Sida/SAREC supported projects (2003-2009), and Head, Crop Protection Section ( 1991-1996) at Haramaya University; and Member, National Variety Release Technical Committee (2003-2004).



Ma NOOLAAN KARNO KAYNTA LA,AANTEED(we can’t life without forest)……………….. …………………………..Q/W mowlid hassan hirsi


Deegaanka Kayntu(forest environmen) waxay door muhiima ka ciyaartaa quudinta koritaanta bulshada.

kayntu waa mid kamida  khayraadada dabiiciga ee uGu waawayn dhulka oogadiisa.  Waxaa jirta sabab aynu hadiyo jeer uga hadalno nolosha geedka( the tree of life), maxayaa yeelay kayntu waa halbawlaha tageera nolosha oogada dhulka. 8 sanadood ka hor, qayb kamida oogada dhulka waxaa ku qarsoonaa kayn oo wuxuu ahaa dhul lama taabtaan ah. Lkn manta goobahaas sadexdii meeloodba meel ayaa kayn ah.  KAYNTU waa guriga  80%  aduun waynaha ku xidhan kala duwanaanshaha noolaha(biodiversity) iyo bilyano dolar ah oo qiimah gaara ku leh dhirta dawooyinka kuwaas oo laga soo goosta kaynta sanad walba.  Intaa waxaa sii dheer intaa,  1.6 bilyuun  dad ah ayuu risiqoogu (livelihood)ku xidhnayhay Kaynta .


Qaar kamida hababka kayntu suurta gal uga dhigto koritaanka cuntada aynu u baahanahay.( Some of the ways forests make it possible to grow the food we need).

Kayntu  waxay caawisa misaanida iyo sixitaanka  nidaamka cimilo roobeedka ee dhulka, waxay kantaroshaa xadiga miisaanka ah ee roobku ku da,o meel. Hadaba tani waxay aad muhiim ugu tahay  goobaha cilmiga beeraha(agricultural areas) halkaas oo xili roobaadku ku yaryahay.

Siidoo kale dhir fara badan ayaa u baahan  caawinta  cayaan bacrimeedka(pollinators) si ay usoo saarto  midhaheeda iyo siidheedhkeeda.  shimbiraha, shinida,cayayaanka iyo xayawaankuba waxay u dhaqmaan sida fal-dadajiyaasha habka cilmiga beeraha, hadaba qaar badan  qaar badan ayaa guryahooga ka dhigta  deegaanka kaynta ee ku xiga dhul beereedka. .  Hadaba ulakaqc ahaan, markaynu burburino gayiga kaynta sababo la xidhiidha beerafalashada, waxaynu yaraynaynaa qadiyo aad muhiim ugu ah goosashada dalaga caafimaadka qaba.   Sidoo kale duurjoogta dhir iyo xayaawan iskugu jirta ee laga helo kaytau waa isha ugu way nee quudashadada iyo risiqada dadyoow badan.

Cuntooyinka kayntu waa quudashada joogtada ah ee baadiyaha iyo u adeegista xiliyada cunto yaraanshaha(food scarcity).

Kayntu kaliya inagama caawiso cuntada aynu ku korno lkn waxay ina siisaa tamarta aynu u baahanahy inaan wax ku karsano. Qiyaas ahaan 2.4 bilyuun dad ah ayaa xaabada u istic maala wax karsasho.


Waa maxay Evolution? Codka Dhaqdhaqaaqa Somali secular

qalinka mowlid hassan hirsi.


Waa maxay Evolution?Maxay se tahay Aragtida Horumarka Noolaha(The theory of Evolution)?!
Erayga Evolution oo loogu dhawaaqo E-fa-luu-shin, macnihiisa xarfiga ah waa horumar, ama hor u socod. Wax horay uga dhaqaaqay halkii ay joogeen.
Evolution ama the theoey of evolution waa qeyb ka mida Cilmiga Noolaha ( biology). Waa mowduuc gorfeeya xiriir ka hidde ( genetic), muuqaal, iyo askun ee ka dhexeeya dhamaan noolaha dunida ku nool. Cilmiga Evolution ku ma aha mid gorfeeya sida ay nolosha ( life) ku askuntay ama u ku timid, balse waa cilmi isku howla inuu muujiyo xiriirka ka dhaxeeya dhamaan noolaha dunida ku nool.
Evolution ku wuxuu qaataa wakhti dheer si saamayntiisu uga muuqato noolaha, sidoo kale wuxuu qaadan karaa wakhti kooban, balse inta badan wuxuu qaataa wakhti aad u dheer. Tusaale horumarka iyo isbadelka ku dhaca Bakteeriyada qaarkeed wuxuu qaadan karaa maalmo kooban si ay Bakteriyadaas u noqoto noole ka duwan kii hore. Balse horumarka iyo isbadelka ku dhaca dhirta ama dadka wuxuu qaadan karaa boqolaal kun oo sano si loo dareemo inuu isbadel ku dhacay noolahaas.
Evolution ka waxaa sababa dhowr walxood, waxaa se ugu muhiimsan inta hoos ku xusan:
1-Kala duwanaasho ( variation ) kala duwananta aynu ka hadlayno waa mida u dhexaysa Hal NOOLE sida Dadka. ( la soco isma bar bar dhigayno Labo NOOLE, ee waxaynu tilmaamaynaa oo qura kala duwanaanshaha Hal NOOLE).
Kala duwanaashahaas waa mid joogta ah sida kala duwananta Dadku ku kala duwanyihiin DHERAR KA iyo CULAYSKA . Midna waa kala duwanan aan joogta ahayn tusaale ; LABB IYO DHADIG.
Waxaa sababa kala duwananshaha HIDDE ( genetic), tusaale kala duwanaanta ay dadku ku kala duwanyihiin Dheerarka waxaa sababay HIDDE ( Genetic factor). Sidoo kale kala duwanaanta waxaa sababa Deegaanka ( environment ) tusaale CULAYSKA Qof ka waxaa saamayn ku yeelan kara cunada uu cuno iyo Hab nololeedka uu qofkaa ku noolyahay taaso ah Saamayn Deegaan (Environmental factor).
2- La qabsashada (Adaptation):
Dhamaan Kala duwanaan walba oo ka dhex jirta Hal NOOLE ,haddii ay ahaan lahayd, DHERAR,MIDAB, CULAYS, …….IWM, waxay ku khasabtaa Noolehaasi in uu sameeyo la qabsi uu la qabsanayo Deegaanka ( environment) si uu u bad baado isaga iyo dhashiisa. La qabsashadaas waxay noqon kartaa mid ah LA QABSASHO HAB-DHAQANEED ( Behavioural adaptation ) tusaale Lo’da duur joogta ah waxay u nooshahay koox koox, halkii koox waxay kor u dhaaftaa 100 . Lo’daas duur joogta ah uma noola ha hal gooniya. Maxay tahay haddaba sababta ay lo’daas ugu nooshahay koox gaaraysa 100? Sababtu waxaa weeye haddii uu libaax soo weeraro kooxdaas waxaa yaraanaya halista libaaxaas. Si aad u fahamto habka ay u yaraanayso halista libaaxa, waxaad is weydiisaa waa imisa fursada bad baado ee ay hasato hal lo’ haddii uu libaax soo weeraro ? Waxaa hubaal ah in fursadeeda bad baado ay tahay libaaxa ayaa cunaya ama waa ay ka bad baadaysaa taasoo xisaab ahaan noqonaysa %50. Balse haddii ay lo’daas ku dhex jirto 99 lo’ood fursadeeda bad baado aad ayay u badanaysaa taasoo xisaab ahaan noqonaysa %99, sidoo kale halista in la cuno aad ayay isku dhimaysaa oo waxay noqonaysaa 1% , sababtoo ah halistii in la cuno waxaa la qaybsaday 99 lo’ood. Tani waxaa la yiraahdaa Behaviour adaptation ama la qabsasho hab dhaqameed.
Laqabshadu waxa kale oo ay noqon kartaa mid ku timaada jirka Noolaha gudahiisa ( physiological and anatomical adaptations). Tusaale Nibiriga wuxuu leeyahay Baruur adag ( fat) oo ka celisa in dhaxan uu u dhinto marka uu Baddaha qabow gaaro.
Horumarka Nooluhu wuxuu qaataa wakhti dheer, sidoo kale wakhti gaaban ayuu qaadan karaa. Noolaha qaar ka mida isbadel degdeg ah hadduu ku dhaco deegaankiisa, waa uu dabar go’aa, balse qaar kale sida Bakteeriyada qaar ka mida, oo la yiraahdo Staphylococcus aureus, waxaa ku dhaca isbadel Hidde. Isabadel ka Hidde ee ku dhaca Staphylococcus aureus, waxaa sababa isbadel ku yimaada Deegaanka ay ku nooshahay Staphylococcus aureus.Staphylococcus aureus waxay ku nooshahay gudaha noolaha dhiiga kulu sida Dadka, Lo’ da…iwm. Badanaa Staphylococcus aureus dadka wax dhibaato ah uma gaysato, balse sida aan horay u xusay deegaanka Staphylococcus aureus waa gudaha noole kale sida dadka. Isticmaalka baahidu aysan keenin ee ay dadku isticmaalayaan jireen Anti-biotics ayaa isbadel u geystay Deegaankii Staphylococcus aureus ee ahaa gudaha dadka, kadibna waxaa ku dhacay Staphylococcus isbadel hidde si ay ula qabsato isbadalka ku dhacay deegaankeedi. Waagii hore qofku haddu hargab ku dhaco dhaqaatiirtu waxay u qori jireen Anti-biotics, balse hadda dhaqaatiirtu siiba kuwa reer galbeedku qofka ilaa ay ogaadaan inuu u baahanyahay Anti-biotic uma qoraan, waxayna ku dadaalayaan inay yareeyaan isbadel ka deegaan iyo midka hidde ee ku dhacaya Staphylococcus aureus, taasoo keeni karta in Staphylococcus ay noqoto mid la qabsata Anti-biotic kada, kadibna ay halis noqoto oo wax lagu daaweeyo la waayo mar haddii ay la qabsatay antibiotics kadii.
Tusaalahaas kore wuxuu cadayn u yahay in horumarka noolahu uu yahay mid dhaba oo la dareemi karo mudo kooban.
Kala duwanaanta uu halka NOOLE kala duwanyahay (variation ) iyo La qabsashada uu nooluhu la qabsanayo deegaankiisa haddii ay socoto malaayiin sano, waxaa soo askuma NOOLE cusub oo ka duwan kii hore.
Haddaba Dadku sidee bay u horumareen( evolution) ?
Dadku se ma daanyeer bay ka yimaadeen?
Dadku waxay ka soo askumeen sida ay leedahay aragtida Horumar ka Noolaha ( Theory of Evolution), noole ka bad baaday dabar go’ii ku dhacay noolihii noolaa xiligii Diinaasuur ka ( Dinosaurs ), noolahaas oo ahaa naaslay ( mammal) yara. Naasalaydaas yar ayaa waxaa ku bilowday kala duwanaansho (variation ) iyo La QABSASHO ( Adaptation ) socday malaayiin sano, ilaa ay samaysmeen Noolaayaal cusub.
Noolayaashaa cusub sidoo kala waxaa ku socday Variation & Adaptation, socday malaayiin sano, ilaa ay qaar ka mid ah noqdeen NOOLE cusub. Noolahaas cusub waxaa ka bad baaday inta awooday inay la qabsato isbadalka joogta ah ee ku socday deegaankiisa.
Inta badan dadka aan fahamsanayn waxa uu Evolution ku yahay, waxay la soo boodaan in Evolution ku uu yahay ” Dadka daanyeer bay ka yimaadeen!” Waxayna daliilsadaan muuqalka hoos ka muuqda. Muuqaalka hoose waxaa loogu talo galay kaliya in lagu muujiyo xiriirka hidde ( genes), muuqaal, iyo hab dhismeedka jirka ee ka dhaxeeya dhamaan kooxda loo yaqaan Primates. Muuqaalku wuxuu muujinayaa kaliya in noole walba oo ka muuqda muuqaalka uu xiriir la leeyahay kan kale oo labadii isku dhowba xiriirkoodu uu yahay mid iskaga dhow kuwa kale ee ka fog. Muuqaalka loolama jeedo in mid ba midka kale ka farcamay, ee kaliya waxaa lagu muujinayaa xiriirka ka dhexeeya iyo sida ay iskugu dhowyihiin.
Afka Soomaaliga waa af la dayacay oo aan lahayn eray bixin badan, tusaale Primates ka waxaa ay u kala baxaa boqolaal nooc, balse Soomaalida wax walba oo muuqaal dad leh balse aan ahayn dad waa u daanyeer. Taasina waa nasiib xumo.
Dunida islam ka waa meelaha wali evolution ka laga dafiro oo dadka intooda badan aysan fahamsanayn. 1970s waxaa ku batay dunida islam ka rag culimo isku sheegay oo dadka marin habaabiyay oo been ka sheegay evolution. Balse tobankii sano ee u dambaysay waxaa soo baxay rag dhalinyaro ah oo wadaado ah oo dadka fahamsiiyay waxa uu evolution ku yahay iyo waxa ay ku diidanyihiin. Isku soo duub evolution ku ma aha wax lagu soo koobi karo post ama maqaal, balse waa moduuc aad u balaaran. Waxaan kula talin lahaa qof walba oo taageersan ama diidan evolution ka inuu marka hore baaro, oo uu akhriyo, iskuna dayo inuu fahmo, kadibna uu la doodo kuwa taageersan ama kuwa diidan.

restoration ecology.

  1. Introduction of Ecosystem and concept of restoration ecology

It is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed   or deteriorated (society for Ecological restoration definition).   Also we can  define Restoration ecology is a complex conservation activity that creates plant and animal communities/ecosystems modeled on historical systems and ecological theory, on sites that have been significantly altered by modern human disturbance.   Concept of restoration ecology  to other efforts to improve degraded lands or destroyed ecosystem. This figure illustrating that there are a number  of efforts that may be employed to help improve injured ecosystems. Terms like restoration, rehabilitation, remediation, and reclamation are often used interchangeably in practice, but their definitions vary by authorizing laws and implementing agencies. Now   The degraded ecosystem exhibits a lower level of structure and function, compared to the original ecosystem. The degraded ecosystem can be returned to its original state using removal, cleanup, remediation and other restoration activities. Along the black arrow pointing toward “Reclamation,”  the shows reclamation activities improving the structure and function of the ecosystem.  Restoration activities (shown as occurring along the dotted arrow) further improve the Ecosystem structure and return the ecosystem to its original state. Off-site mitigation can be used alone or in combination with other approaches to return ecosystems (perhaps in a different location) to their original state.  Anyway ecological restoration is defined as an intentional activity that initiates or accelerates the recovery of a degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystem with respect to its health.

Restoring Ecological Function

The desire to restore species and communities stems both from their intrinsic ecological Value as well as the provision of critical ecosystem services. However, a focus on ecological processes in a restoration context provides a different view of the State and dynamics of ecosystems and the services they may provide. In pragmatic terms,

Measuring ecological functioning requires appraisal of key ecological processes, such as

  • Nutrient processing,
  • Productivity or decomposition.

The currency is typically a process rate, and it reflects system performance. Because ecosystem function may indicate important elements of system performance, environmental managers are also increasingly interested in the use of functional assessments.

Historically, many ecological restoration efforts have focused on single species, populations, or the Composition of ecological communities. However, it is recognized increasingly that restoration of ecological processes, such as nutrient turnover or hydrological flux, may be critical components of restoration outcomes. This understanding has been paralleled by an upsurge in ecological research on the linkage between ecological structure (e.g., species diversity, habitat complexity) and ecological function (e.g., biogeochemical processes, disturbance regimes). Linking theoretical models of ecosystem and community change with restoration ecology has the potential to advance both the practice of restoration and our understanding of the dynamics of degraded environment. Ideally, ecological restoration efforts create physical and ecological conditions that promote self-sustainable, resilient systems with the capacity for recovery from rapid change and stress (Holling 1973; Walker et al. 2002).



1.2. Restoring  of soil degradtion


Soil; the most basic of all resources, the mother of every productivity, it is the essence of all terrestrial life and a cultural heritage. Yet, soil is finite in extent, prone to degradation by natural and anthropogenic factors.  Any way   in order to restore the soil   it must be focused on the   Physical restoration, Chemical restoration, Biological restoration and Ecological restoration.

1.Physical restoration:   by

  • Reducing desertification,
  • improving aggregation,
  • improving plant available water capacity, improving aeration.
  1. Chemical restoration: by
  • By alleviating acidification,
  • decreasing Salinization,
  • creating elemental favorable balance,
  • improving activity and capacity of nutrient pools,


3.Biological restoration .  by

  • Increasing microbial biomas carbon
  • Enhancing soil Biodiversity
  • Creating disease suppressive  soils
  • Increasing mycohorhizal and Rhizobial population.



4.Ecological restoration  of soil  by


  • Increasing soil C pool
  • Strengening elemental cyclin
  • Creating favorable hydrological balance
  • Enhancing ecoystem service


1.2.1. Soil Fertility Management to Restore Soil Quality

Sustainable intensification (SI), producing more from less by reducing losses and increasing the use efficiency, is attainable only through improvement of soil quality including chemical quality or soil fertility. Although not the only way to increase soil fertility, the use of INM is a very effective approach for achieving SI. Nutrient depletion and loss of soil fertility are major causes of low productivity [49] in many developing countries. Use of organic amendments, by recycling organic by-products including urban waste, is a useful strategy to enhance soil fertility   and improve structural stability or aggregates . While, nitrogen (N) input is important to improving soil fertility, its improper and/or excessive use can also lead to environmental pollution. China consumes about 30% of the world’s N fertilizer [52], and is able to feed ~22% of the world population on just 6.8% of the global cropland area. However, the country has severe environmental problems because of low N use efficiency, leaching of reactive N into surface and groundwater resources, and emission of N (as N2O) into the atmosphere. Soil organic matter has been identified as an indicator of soil fertility based on the rationale that it contributes significantly to soil physical, chemical, and biological properties that affect vital ecosystem processes of rangelands, Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil and rangeland health. It is related to a number of ecosystem properties, processes, and functions, including the quantity and composition of organic matter, soil biotic activity, infiltration capacity, and resistance to erosion. Soil aggregation has potential benefits on soil moisture status, nutrient dynamics, slope maintenance, and erosion reduction.

 1.2.2 Improving Soil/Agro-Biodiversity

Soil biota are important to soil restoration and reduce risks of degradation and desertification. Indeed, soil biota comprise a major component of global terrestrial biodiversity and perform critical roles in key ecosystem functions (e.g., biomass decomposition, nutrient cycling, moderating CO2 in the atmosphere, creating disease suppressive soils, etc.). Improving activity and species diversity of soil fauna and flora (micro, meso and macro) is therefore essential to restoring and improving soil quality and reducing risks of soil degradation. Adverse effects of agricultural management on soil microbiological quality is another global concern.

  1. Rangeland restoration and management

 Natural ecosystems have been severely destroyed because of anthropogenic disturbances, unreasonable utilization, and neglect of protection and restoration. These disturbed or degraded ecosystems are confronted with poor soil fertility, shortage of water and deteriorated microenvironment, which would severely restrict their productivity. How to comprehensively restore and harness the degraded ecosystem is a key issue in increasing productivity, improving environmental conditions and achieving sustainable development. When the disturbance is removed, the degraded ecosystems will initiate a succession to the primitive community, and restoration process is considered as the progressive succession. Management of rangeland degradation can be divided into preventative and restoration measures. Answers to preventative measures can often be found within the causes of land degradation. In view of the massive scale of land degradation. where restoration is of significant importance to land owners. The fast rate at which intact natural ecosystems are degraded and decline, has emphasized the importance of ecological restoration to maintain the earth’s natural capital .

In order to restore degraded ecosystems, it is crucial to identify which ecosystem functions should be restored first. It is therefore, important to define the functional status of the ecosystem beforehand. It is also important to establish the relationship between ecosystem structure and functioning, and to assess the potential for ecosystem restoration.

   2.1. The role of vegetation in restoration of degraded rangelands

Vegetation plays an important role in erosion control; it efficiently mitigates erosion by active and passive protection. Active protection against erosive agents consists of raindrop interception (Woo et al., 1997), and increase in water infiltration in soil, thermal regulation and soil fixation by root systems. Vegetation also has a passive action by trapping and retaining sediments inside the catchment due to its aerial parts. A protective soil cover can be installed efficiently on eroded lands using bioengineering works based on common practices of ecological engineering. These structures favor artificial and natural vegetation dynamics so the vegetation predominates over erosive dynamics and controls it. The long-term goal of the degradation interventions is to restore ecosystems, in accordance with recent considerations about ecological engineering concepts and techniques Restoration is commonly considered as accelerated succession. Planting vegetation as a restoration measure for degraded rangelands is preferred over structural measures since concrete, stonework, wood or any other building materials are subject to decay and liable to be avoided Vegetation grows through different stages while it is improving the function of the ecosystem by providing physical soil protection against erosion by reducing the velocity of runoff and its decomposition contributes to nutrient cycling.



In rangelands that have become degraded to the point that ecosystem functions cannot recover solely through-improved management strategies within practice-relevant time spans, active rehabilitation techniques are sought Most of these techniques aim at the improvement of soil water status by increasing infiltration or decreasing evaporative loss. These restoration techniques include introducing transplants, application of brush packs or organic mulch and developing micro catchments to capture runoff . Revegetation and improvement of degraded land should be practiced after development of better techniques of seedbed preparation and planting methods . Seed germination and establishment of natural and artificial revegetation is a result of the number of seeds favorable in microsites or „safe sites‟ in the seedbed rather than the total number of available seeds . Various techniques to improve microsites for sown seeds and to increase the seed germination rate and establishment have been introduced in the rangeland revegetation process .Some methods used for rangeland restoration consist of biological and mechanical approaches. The biological approach includes planting methods of seeds using manure, gravel, and grass. The mechanical approach includes use of farm implements to disturb the soil.


  1. Restoration Ecology and Evolutionary Process


Restoration activities have increased dramatically in recent years, creating evolutionary challenges and opportunities. Though restoration has favored a strong focus on the role of habitat, concerns surrounding the evolutionary ecology of populations are increasing.

previous researchers have considered the importance of preserving extant diversity and

maintaining future evolutionary potential, but they have usually ignored the prospect of ongoing evolution in real time. However, such contemporary evolution (changes occurring over one to a few hundred generations) appears to be relatively common in nature . Moreover, it is often associated with situations that may prevail in restoration projects, namely the presence of introduced populations and other anthropogenic disturbances Any restoration program may thus entail consideration of evolution in the past, present,and future.      Restoration efforts often involve dramatic and rapid shifts in habitat that may even lead to different ecological states (such as altered fire regimes) Genetic variants that evolved within historically different evolutionary contexts (the past) may thus be pitted against novel and mismatched current conditions (the present). The degree of this mismatch should then determine the pattern and strength of selection acting on trait variation in such populations.

3.1. Restoration Ecology for climate change

Also I want to write the  linkages between two fields that have been little acquainted yet

have much to say to one another: restoration ecology and climatology. The limited discourse

between these fields is surprising. In the last two decades there have been significant theoretical breakthroughs and a proliferation of research on historical climate and climate-related sciences that have led to an overhaul of our understanding of Earth’s climatesystemThese new insights are relevant to restoration and ecology—so much so that fuller understanding could trigger rethinking of fundamental principles.

Conceptual views of the natural world influence tactical approaches to conservation, restoration, and resource management. to understand and assimilate into restoration ecology theory—that is, the role of the natural climate system as a pervasive force of ecological change. Advances in environmental sciences The phrase climate change usually connotes global warming, greenhouse gas impacts, novel anthropogenic threats, and international politics. There is, however, a larger context that we must begin during the mid-to-late twentieth century on ecological succession, disturbance, and spatial and temporal variability motivated a shift from viewing nature as static and typological to dynamic and process driven. In turn, restoration ecology and practice matured from emphasis on museum-like nature preservation to maintaining variability and natural function.

  1. Reference and literature citations of the assignment
  • Foundations of restoration ecology book of   Edited b  Donald A. Falk, Margaret A. Palmer, and Joy B. Zedler

Foreword by    Richard J. Hobbs

  • Article, Restoration Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation
  • Rattan Lal The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; E-Mail:
  • Article, Evolutionary Restoration Ecology Craig A. Stockwell, Michael T. Kinnison, and Andrew P. Hendry
  • Williamson, James M., Hale W. Thurston, and Matthew T. Heberling. 2008. Valuing Acid Mine Drainage Remediation in West Virginia: A Hedonic Modeling Approach. The Annals of Regional Science, 42(4): 987-999.





author; mowlid hassan


approved by mohamud abadir( lecturer in jigjiga university,   and msc of range ecology and Biodiversity conservation.